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The Executive is the arm of government in charge of putting laws and policies passed by the legislative into effect. The Executive often contributes to the formulation of policy. Depending on the nation, the Executive has several titles in official documents. There are presidents in certain nations and chancellors in others. Presidents, Prime Ministers, and Ministers are only a small portion of the Executive branch. It also includes the administrative machinery (civil servants). While the heads of state and their ministers are together referred to as the political executive, those in charge of daily operations are known as the permanent executive.

Every country may not have the same type of executive. In a presidential system, the president serves as both the Head of State and the Head of Government.

The office of president is immensely powerful in this system, both theoretically and practically. The United States, Brazil, and the majority of the countries in Latin America are among the nations with such a system. In a parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is the head of government. The nominal Head of State in the majority of parliamentary systems is either a president or a monarch. In such a system, the President or Monarch’s position is essentially ceremonial, and the Prime Minister, along with the cabinet, exercises real power. Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Portugal all have such systems.

In a semi-presidential system, there is both a President and a Prime Minister, but unlike in a parliamentary system, the President may have extensive day-to-day authority. In this system, the President and Prime Minister may belong to the same party at times, while at other times, they may belong to opposing parties. France, Russia, and Sri Lanka, among others, have such a system.

The Foundation aims to work towards addressing governance issues plaguing the Executive and its functions such as the need for administrative reforms, balance of power, separation of power, service terms and conditions etc. by doing primary research, support through policy advocacy and advisory services.



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