The term “Legislature” comes from the Latin word “lex,” which refers to a certain kind of legal rule that is primarily of general application. This rule is called legislation, and the institution, which enacts it on behalf of the people, is called Legislature. There are essentially two types of legislative structures: presidential and parliamentary. In a parliamentary system, the Legislature selects the executive from among its own members. The Legislature is the body to whom the executive is accountable. The presidential system is based on the theory of separation of powers and does not permit any person to serve simultaneously in both executive and legislature.
The Legislature is that organ of the government which passes the laws of the government. The agency is in charge of articulating the state’s will and endowing it with legitimacy and power.
In addition to its law making functions, Legislature also has several other functions:
Executive Power and Functions : In a parliamentary system, the Executive which runs the administration must enjoy the confidence of the Parliament.
Deliberative Functions: To deliberate upon matters of national importance, public issues, problems and needs.
Financial Powers and Functions: It is considered as the “Custodian of National Finances” with no money being raised or spent by the Executive without the approval of the legislature. Every year, the executive must draft the budget for the upcoming fiscal year and submit it to the legislature for approval. Furthermore, it alone can approve the imposition, or repeal or collection of any tax whatsoever.
Electoral Power and Functions: All the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament form part of the Electoral College to elect the President and the Vice President of India. Besides this, members of Lok Sabha elect their Speaker as well as Deputy Speaker whereas members of Rajya Sabha elect their Deputy Chairman only.
Constituent Powers and Functions: The Parliament is empowered to amend the provisions of the Constitution.
Judicial Powers and Functions: The judges of the Supreme Court, High Courts, the President of India and the Vice President may be removed from office through the process of impeachment.
The Foundation aims to work towards addressing governance issues plaguing legislatures and its functions such as executive functions, financial powers, judicial powers, constituent powers and functions, etc. by doing primary research, support through policy advocacy and advisory services.